A study of plagiarism and copyright infringement

Copyright and Creative Commons Explained by Common Craft Email There are a number of important copyright issues surrounding email correspondence. If you send an email to a private person or discussion list, for example, you automatically own the copyright in your email message and you retain your moral right to be identified as the author. Webwhacking Webwhacking is a term used to describe the process of saving entire websites for use offline.

A study of plagiarism and copyright infringement

USA Abstract Detecting and combating plagiarism from Web-based sources is a concern for administrators and instructors involved in online distance education. We found that while manual methods detected plagiarism in only about 3 percent of assignments, Turnitin. Our attempts to increase awareness and manage expectations decreased infractions measurably, but not significantly.

A study of plagiarism and copyright infringement

We conclude that raising awareness and managing expectations about plagiarism may be worthwhile, but is no substitute for systematic detection and vigilant enforcement, even among adult learners. Plagiarism; academic integrity; cheating; online; e-learning; adult education Introduction Educators have always been concerned with upholding standards of academic integrity among individuals engaged in scholarly pursuit.

Members of intellectual communities, such as universities, are expected to value honesty, trustworthiness, and civility and to behave accordingly McCabe and Pavela, n.

As a basic tenet of scholarly activity, educators have a responsibility to foster and maintain standards of academic integrity, which requires engaging students in the development of moral reasoning Kohlberg and Hersh, Plagiarism is one type of violation of academic integrity.

With the proliferation of digital source material on the Web, plagiarism has received renewed attention, particularly among administrators and instructors involved in online distance education Groark, Oblinger, and Choa, ; Heberling, ; Hickman, Some observers believe that the Internet makes it easier for students to plagiarize Harris, ; Saulnier, Underwood and Szabo find that students A study of plagiarism and copyright infringement more exposure to Internet use in assignment preparation self-reported greater willingness to engage in copy-and-paste plagiarism i.

Hinman goes so far as to suggest that we soon will witness an increase in academic dishonesty as universities offer more courses through online distance education. As instructors of an online distance education course, we share these concerns and chose to examine the extent of Internet plagiarism in five offerings of our online course between July and June Our course requires students to be active Internet users, including creating an online portfolio in which they post their assignments as webpages.

This paper presents the results of our investigation of plagiarism prevalence, detection, and remediation among adult learners in an online course.

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The paper is organized in the following way. First, we offer an interpretation of the definition of plagiarism and explain its impact on quantifying, detecting, and preventing infractions. Second, we describe our online course, convey our expectations regarding plagiarism among adult learners, and explain our focus on the copy-and-paste variety.

Third, we discuss the methods used. Fourth, we present the results of our study which include quantifying the actual rates of plagiarism among assignments prepared by students, comparing plagiarism rates obtained using two different methods of detection, and evaluating the efficacy of explicit plagiarism instruction to reduce infraction rates.

Finally, we discuss the implications of our results and recommendations for maintaining academic integrity standards. Intentionality is one contingency. Infractions may result from mismatches between the ethical norms of the academy and the workplace Martin,or simply from hasty and incomplete adaptation of passages copied and pasted from digital sources for reference purposes.

Some might consider the latter an example of poor writing rather than plagiarism because it did not involve intentional cheating. Nonetheless, it is difficult to ascertain intentionality through detection except in extreme cases.

Extreme cases would include copying entire or large portions of papers written by someone else or papers purchased from term paper mills. Lack of proof of intentionality may reduce the penalties for offenders, but detecting writing that gives the impression of being plagiarized remains important for offering instructive remedies.

Unintentional violations of the rules do not mean that plagiarism has not occurred. When original authorship is not properly acknowledged, however, such uses constitute copyright infringement.

A study of plagiarism and copyright infringement

A second contingency is the degree of culpability. Researchers have identified different forms of plagiarism Cabe, n. Some educators suggest that concern with plagiarism should be more about teaching students to appreciate the development of knowledge, acknowledge intellectual contributions of other scholars, and represent the process of building on existing knowledge in academic writing and less about violating rules and copyright laws Howard, ; Hunt, ; Martin, By seeking more than mere compliance with what may seem to students to be arbitrary rules, therefore, educators enforce academic integrity in order to advance students moral development Dark and Winstead, The following sections review previous research on these three issues.

Quantifying Plagiarism Prevalence Previous studies report widely varying percentages of cheating prevalence Crown and Spiller, ; Ercegovac and Richardson, ; Lathrop and Foss, ; Whitley, Crown and Spiller attribute this to variation in the measurement of cheating along three dimensions: First, most research quantifies cheating by means of self-reporting in student surveys CAI research, ; Ercegovac and Richardson, ; Whitley, Actual observations of cheating produce different results, usually much lower estimates of prevalence Crown and Spiller, ; Karlins, Michaels, and Podlogar, Estimates of total cheating typically include a variety of types of cheating behavior e.

The wide range of cheating rates reported in the literature i. Third, the bounding time frame for incidence occurrence, either for observance or survey self-reporting of cheating behavior, affects prevalence rates.

Incidence rates for cheating on homework assignments over the course of a semester will differ from rates of plagiarism on one assignment or self-reporting of any incident of cheating during a college career Crown and Spiller, CONTENT CREATORS.

Whether you’re writing content for your business, filming the next great movie or creating a hit song, CopyByte can help you protect your work and stop plagiarism and infringement.

SCHOOLS & UNIVERSITIES.

South Africa: Plagiarism - the Law is Clear - arteensevilla.com

Drafting effective anti-plagiarism policies and putting them into action is a daunting task for any school. CopyByte can help draft and implement a policy that will help reduce plagiarism at your institution. 3. Software. Unauthorised copying of commercially produced computer software is not allowed.

This applies regardless of whether the original copies of the software have been purchased on a medium such as a CD-ROM or DVD or downloaded from the Web. Last Updated: Mar 02, | Views. Topics: Copyright Was this helpful?

66 Feb 08,  · In cramped quarters at Russia’s Higher School of Economics, shared by four students and a cat, sat a server with 13 hard drives. The server hosted Sci-Hub, a website with over 64 million.

What are the consequences and penalties for copyright infringement? YouTube, Facebook and other similar sites post popular video clips--is this legal? Would it be legal for me to borrow one of my friend’s CDs and copy the music on my computer?

Plagiarism — Graduate Level | Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Library